Shaft Alignment Handbook • 3rd Edition

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The 3rd edition of the Shaft Alignment Handbook is the most comprehensive book ever written on the subject of aligning rotating machinery. This single source reference offers a comprehensive analysis of coupled rotating machinery systems, providing practical guidelines for solving complex alignment tasks fast and accurately. The 3rd edition of the Shaft Alignment Handbook contains information on: the importance of alignment ... recommendation for designing and installing rotating machinery systems ... provides information on diagnosing misalignment using vibration analysis, thermal data studies and intelligent visual inspections... information on foundations, baseplates, and piping ...flexible coupling designs and proper coupling installation ... important preliminary alignment checks ... covers every alignment measurement method and alignment measurement system (both mechanical and electronic and electro-optical based systems) ... specifies alignment tolerances guidelines ... considers various methods and special tooling necessary to position rotating machinery correctly ... explains twelve different methods of measuring off-line to running machinery movement ... covers all aspects of visually representing your alignment problems using alignment modeling concepts ... how to align V-belt drives, multiple element drive trains, right angle drives, vertical machinery, multiple element drive trains ... discusses bore and parallel alignment ... explains basic information on vibration analysis and rotor balancing ... includes questionnaires for alignment hardware, software, and qualifications for consultants and contractors ... with dozens of illustrated examples applying all alignment principles on industrial machinery including: motors, steam, gas, and water turbines, internal combustion engines, pumps, fans, blowers, compressors, gear boxes, fluid drives, generators, cooling towers, extruders, dredges, mills, paper machines, kilns, and marine drives ... and contains a multitude of examples, tables, photographs, and other illustrations. 22 chapters, 417 illustrations, 450 photographs, 800 pages. ISBN# 978-1-57444-721-7.

$189.95 (USD)

Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction to shaft alignment
Benefits of good machinery alignment
Consequences of defective alignment
What happens to rotating machinery when it’s misaligned a little bit, or moderately, or even ... severely?
Four basic ingredients necessary to insure alignment success
Eight basic steps to align machinery
How qualified are you to detect and correct machinery misalignment?
Why should people be tested on their alignment skills?
Experience evaluation for machinery alignment
Who needs to be trained and/or qualified in shaft alignment?
Assessing a person’s knowledge and experience level in shaft alignment
Alignment qualification or certification testing
Periodic alignment checks
Alignment record keeping

Chapter 2 - Detecting misalignment on rotating machinery
The four maintenance philosophies
Breakdown or run to failure maintenance
Preventive or time based maintenance
Predictive or condition based maintenance
Pro-active or prevention maintenance
Industrial maintenance philosophy survey results
Types of forces that occur on rotating machinery
How mass, stiffness, and damping affect the vibration response of machinery
How vibration is measured
Time and frequency domain vibration information
Using vibration analysis to detect misalignment
Relationship between vibration amplitude and misalignment severity
Vibration results from a controlled misalignment test on a training demonstrator
Vibration results from a controlled misalignment test on a motor and pump
Before and after vibration results found on a misaligned motor and pump
Why vibration levels often decrease with increasing misalignment
Known vibration spectral signatures of misaligned flexible couplings
Vibration characteristics of misaligned machinery supported in sliding type bearings
Using infrared thermography to detect misalignment
Power loss due to shaft misalignment
The most effective way to determine if misalignment exists

Chapter 3 - Foundations, baseplates, installation, and piping strain
The varying composition of Mother Earth’s surface layer
How do we hold this equipment in place?
Baseplates
Soleplates
Frames
Monolithic Rigid Foundations
Baseplates attached to concrete floors
Anchor bolts
Inertia blocks
Cement, concrete, and grout basics
Reinforced Concrete
Grouting
Traditional grouting methods
Pre-grouted and solid metal baseplates
Case history of installing a baseplate using epoxy based grout
Problems to look for in your foundations and baseplates
Piping, ductwork, and conduit strain
Checking for excessive static piping forces on rotating equipment
Visual Inspection Checklist
How long will rotating machinery stayed accurately aligned?

Chapter 4 - Flexible and rigid couplings
Coupling and shaft misalignment tolerances - what is the difference?
The role of the flexible coupling
What to consider when specifying a flexible coupling
Types of flexible couplings
Mechanically flexible coupling designs
Chain couplings
Gear couplings
Metal ribbon couplings
Universal joint couplings
Flexible link
Leaf spring
Pin drive
Elastomeric couplings
Metallic membrane / disk type coupling designs
Diaphragm couplings
Flexible disc couplings
Rigid Coupling design
Flexible coupling lubrication
Coupling installation
Coupling hub attachment methods
Keys and keyways
Types of keys
Straight bore - sliding clearance with keyways
Straight bore - interference fit with keyways
Splined shaft with end lock nut or locking plate
Tapered bore - interference fit with keyways
Coupling hub to shaft surface contact
Keyless taper bores
Proper interference fit for hydraulically installed coupling hubs
Installation of keyless coupling hubs using hydraulic expansion

Chapter 5 - Preliminary Alignment Checks
Foundation and baseplate checks
Dial Indicator Basics
Damaged, worn, or improperly installed machinery component checks
Runout
Machine housing to baseplate interface problems
Verifying that the Soft Foot has been eliminated
Other methods for correcting soft foot problems

Chapter 6 - Shaft Alignment Measuring Tools
Dimensional Measurement
Classes of dimensional measurement tools and sensors
Standard tape measures, rulers, and straight edges
Feeler and taper gauges
Slide Caliper
Micrometers
Dial Indicators
Optical Alignment Tooling
Optical parallax
Proximity Probes
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
Optical Encoders
Lasers and Detectors
Charge Couple Devices (CCD)
Interferometers
Sweeping 90 degree arcs twice to measure a misalignment condition
Why measurements are taken at 90 degree intervals
Rotating both shafts to override a runout condition
Tips for getting good alignment measurements
Engaged couplings will produce measurement errors
Rim indicator set up variations
Rim readings indicate twice the centerline offset
Validity Rule
Partial arc mathematics
Partial Arc Measurement Procedure
Partial Arc Measurement Sample Problem
Pitfalls of partial arc measurements
Bracket / Bar Sag
Xmas tree brackets and face sag
Zero Sag Brackets
Dial indicator shaft alignment system manufacturers
Dial indicator manufacturers hardware specifications

Chapter 7 - Correcting Misalignment
Installing machinery for the first time
Bolt bound conditions
Last resort measures for bolt bound conditions
Machinery Positioning Basics
Axial Spacing
Making corrections in the vertical direction
Lateral Movement
Vertical Movement
Types of Movement Tools
Pry / crow bars and wedges
Comealongs and Chainfalls
Hydraulic Jacks
Permanent Jackscrews
Portable Jackscrews and Machinery Positioners
What to Do When Things Aren’t Working
Misalignment Rantings

Chapter 8 - Alignment Modeling Basics
Graphing / modeling alignment techniques
Basic Alignment Models
Scaling the Drive System onto the Alignment Model
The Cardinal Alignment Graphing and Modeling Rules
Plot measurements that have been compensated for bracket sag
Rim Readings are always twice the offset amount
Plus means “low”, Minus means “high”
Zero the indicator on the side that is pointing toward the top of the graph paper
Whatever shaft the dial indicator is taking readings on is the shaft that you want to draw on the graph paper
Determining corrective moves to make on one machine from the alignment model
The overlay line or final desired alignment line
Superimpose your boundary conditions, movement restrictions, and the allowable movement envelope
Lateral movement restrictions
Where did the Stationary - Movable alignment concept come from?
Solving piping fit-up problems with the overlay line

Chapter 9 - Defining misalignment
Alignment and coupling tolerances
What exactly is shaft alignment?
Does level and aligned mean the same thing?
Measuring Angles
Types of misalignment
Definition of shaft misalignment
Checking the misalignment tolerance
Shaft vs. coupling alignment
How straight are rotating machinery shafts?

Chapter 10 - Reverse Indicator Method
Basic mathematical equations for the Reverse Indicator Method
Modeling Reverse Indicator Method Using the “Point to Point” Technique
Rim Readings are always twice the offset amount
Modeling the Reverse Indicator Method Using the Line to Points Technique

Chapter 11 - Face and Rim Methods
Mathematical relationship in machinery alignment
Sixteen Point Method
Twenty Point Method
Problems with taking face readings
Preset the axial position
Compensate for axial movement with stationary indicators
Compensate for axial movement with rotating indicators
Modeling the Face and Rim Method
Artificial Face Surface

Chapter 12 - Double Radial Method
Basic mathematical equations for the Double Radial Method
Modeling the Double Radial Method

Chapter 13 - Shaft to Coupling Spool Method
Basic mathematical equations for the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method
Modeling the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method

Chapter 14 - Face - Face Method
Basic mathematical equations for the Face - Face method
Modeling the Face - Face Method

Chapter 15 - Electronic and Electro-Optical Shaft Alignment Systems
Optical encoder system
Laser-Detector systems
Damalini Systems
Emerson Process Management system
FixturLaser systems
Hamar systems
Prüftechnik systems
SPM Instrument Inc. System
Vibralign system
Laser system manufacturers hardware specifications
Laser system manufacturers software specifications

Chapter 16 - Measuring and compensating for off-line to running machinery movement
What type of machinery is likely to change its position when running?
What causes this movement to occur?
Conducting the Off-line to Running Machinery Movement Survey
Taking “hot” alignment measurements immediately after shutdown
Four general categories of OL2R measurements
Movement of the centerline of the machine cases with respect to its baseplate or frame
Movement of the centerline of the machine cases with respect to some remote reference or observation point
Movement of one machine case with respect to another machine case
Movement of one shaft with respect to another shaft
Calculating machine case thermal expansion using the strain equation
Using infrared thermographic equipment to observe thermal profiles of rotating equipment
Inside micrometer / tooling ball / angle measurement devices
Vertical, lateral, and axial OL2R movement
Proximity probes with water cooled stands
Optical alignment equipment
Optical parallax
Using optical tooling for measuring machinery movement
Establishing reference planes
Alignment bars with proximity probes
Applying laser - detector systems for OL2R measurements
Ball-rod-tubing connector system
Vernier - Strobe system
Instrumented coupling systems
Aligning rotating machinery to compensate for off-line to running machinery movement
Determining the desired off-line shaft positions when using the machine case to baseplate or machine case to remote reference point methods
Determining the desired off-line shaft positions when using the machine case to machine case methods
How to determine the “shoot for” off-line dial indicator readings (a.k.a. “target values”)
Reverse Indicator shoot for dial indicator readings
Face-Rim shoot for dial indicator readings
Double Radial shoot for dial indicator readings
Shaft to Coupling Spool shoot for dial indicator readings
Face-Face shoot for dial indicator readings
Aligning shafts for running conditions (a.k.a. running alignment or “hot operating alignment”)

Chapter 17 - Aligning multiple element drive systems
The multiple element drive train alignment laws
Multiple Element Drive Train Graphing / Modeling Techniques
Multiple Element Drive Train Modeling - One Set of Shafts at a Time
Multiple Element Drive System Graphing - Modeling All the Shafts at One Time
Mixing Different Alignment Measurement Methods
Modeling Right Angle Drive Systems

Chapter 18 - Aligning V-Belt drives
Belt Drive Systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
V-Belt Standards Information
Sheave Information
V-Belt Recommendations and Rules of Thumb
Sheave & Belt Wear
Adjusting Belt Tension
Preliminary alignment checks for V-Belts & sheaves
Types of sheave misalignment conditions
Using a straightedge to measure misalignment
Measuring the misalignment at the sheaves
V-Belt machine measurements
Modeling V-belt alignment problems
V-belt alignment modeling sample problem
Laser alignment systems for V-belts and sheaves

Chapter 19 - Bore Alignment
Aligning a rotating shaft with a stationary hollow cylinder
Aligning two hollow cylinders
Basic Measurement Principles and Nomenclature
Cylinder Alignment Procedure
“Bucking in” Process
Correcting the misalignment
Laser Bore Alignment Systems

Chapter 20 - Parallel Alignment
Rough alignment of parallel rolls
Using optical alignment equipment for roll parallelism
Aligning the rolls in the vertical (up/down) direction
Aligning the rolls in the lateral (side to side) direction
Using laser-detector systems to measure parallelism
Using roll, pitch, and yaw positions of rolls to measure parallelism
Aligning rolls and their drives - Sample Problem

Chapter 21 - Alignment Considerations for Specific Types of Machinery
Drivers
Electric Motors
Steam Turbines
Gas Turbines
Internal Combustion Engines
Horizontally Mounted Centrifugal Pumps
Vertically Mounted Centrifugal Pumps
Blowers and Fans
Compressors
Horizontally mounted electric generators
Vertically mounted electric generators
Speed changing devices - Gearboxes and Fluid Drives
Cooling Tower Fan Drives
Aligning Ship Rudders

Chapter 22 - The History of Machinery Alignment

Appendix
Appendix A • Machinery Data Card
Appendix B • Sample Preliminary Alignment Record Sheet
Appendix C • Sample Installation and Shaft Alignment Report Record Sheet
Appendix D • Torque values • SAE Grade 2 Bolts
Appendix E • Torque values • SAE Grade 5 Bolts
Appendix F • Torque values • SAE Grade 8 Bolts
Appendix G • Shaft Alignment and Related US Patents
Appendix H • Shaft Alignment Training Questionnaire
Appendix I • Shaft Alignment Services Questionnaire
Appendix J • Alignment Internet Web Sites
Appendix K • Single Plane Balancing

Comments and reviews

First some comments about the book in general. It's written by a working engineer who has spent a lifetime actually working in the field. He got into working on rotating machinery with an emphasis on alignment somewhat by accident. Then he developed his own expertise, and finally was persuaded to publish it in book form. This was done in 1986. It has now been issued in its third edition that incorporates new techniques, new tools and as he incorporates his own additional learning. The material covered here isn't covered in school. This is practical knowledge based on a lifetime of working with equipment out in the real world. The writing style matches. Mr. Piotrowski writes as he talks, one professional with a lot of experience talking to another who will be there one day. Any maintenance man working in an industrial plant will quickly recognize the problems discussed here, and will find other nuggets of knowledge that will help him to identify other areas where he needs to re-think about a problem. The Shaft Alignment Handbook, provides detailed guidance based on years of hands-on experience, its a practical tool to help avoid costly shutdowns, dangerous failures, and early replacements.

John ‘Gunny’ Matlock, Nevada

There are very few books about machinery alignment. This is the best I have encountered for machinery alignment. The tried and true methods and techniques discussed in this book are what is used in the industry for large rotating equipment. An added bonus of this book is the detailed history of rotating equipment and related alignment methods. Rotating equipment engineers should consider having this book in your personal library.

Brian Webster, Texas